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Anatomy Important One Liners

1.What is the name for the most prominent spinous process in the spine? Vertebra prominens (C7 in 70% of cases, C6 in 20%, T1 in 10%) 2.What portion of the intervertebral disk is a remnant of the notochord? Nucleus pulposus 3.What three muscles comprise the erector spinae? 1. Iliocostalis 2. Longissimus 3. Spinalis 4.What are the names given to the first and second cervical vertebrae? C1-atlas C2-axis 5.To what vertebral level does the spinal cord extend? LI to L2 6.What is the name of the extension of the dura mater that attaches at the level of S2? External filum terminale 7.How many pairs of spinal nerves exit from the spinal cord? 31 pairs 8.What is the name of the region where the manubrium and the body of the sternum articulate? Sternal angle of Louis 9.What muscle originates from the third to the fifth ribs and inserts into the coracoid process? Pectoralis minor .10.Damage to what nerve will give you “winged scapula’.”? Long thoracic nerve To avoid confusing long thoracic nerve and lateral thoracic artery: Long has an “n” for nerve; lateral 3 & has an “a” for artery. 11.The ventral rami of what regions of the spinal cord make up the brachial plexus? C5-TI 12.What bone houses the ulnar groove? Humerus (between the medial epicondyle and the trochlea) 13.What muscle initiates Abduction of the arm? Supraspinakis 14.What muscle acts in all ranges of motion of the arm? Deltoid ` 15.What nerve is damaged if a patient presents with “wrist drop”? Radial nerve 16.What forms the anatomic snuff box? Extensor pollicis longus, abductor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis brevis 17.What vein, in the antecubital fossa, forms the communica- tion between the basilic vein and the cephalic vein? Median cubital vein (most common site for venipuncture) 18.What two muscles are inner- vated by the axillary nerve? Deltoid and teres minor 19.What nerve is compromised in carpal tunnel syndrome? Median nerve 20.In what compartment of the thigh is the profundus femoris artery found? Anterior compartment (it’s the blood supply to the posterior compartment) 21.Foot drop is caused by a compromise in what nerve? Common peroneal nerve 22.What nerve is damaged if the patient cannot ADduct the thigh? Obturator nerve (nerve to the medial compartment of the thigh) 23.What is the longest muscle of the body? Sartorius 24.What two nerves innervate the pectineus muscle? Femoral and obturator nerves 25.What superficial vein empties into the popliteal fossa? Short saphenous vein 26.What is the artery of the anterior compartment of the leg? Anterior tibia] artery 27.What nerve supplies the lateral compartment of the leg? Superficial peroneal nerve 28.What sensory nerve are you testing when you touch the first web space of the toes? Deep peroneal nerve 29.The peroneal artery is a branch of what artery? Posterior tibial 30.Inflammation of the pre- patellar bursa is often referred to as what? Housemaid’s knee 31.What is the prominent “bump” on the lateral aspect of the knee? Head of the fibula 32.How many ribs articulate with the sternum? Seven (Ribs 8, 9, and 10 articulate with the costal cartilage of rib 7.) 33.What is the part of the lung that extends above the level of the first rib? The cupula 34.What type of pleura is adherent to the surface of the organ? Visceral pleura 35.How many lobes does the right lung have? Three 36.How are they separated? By the oblique and the transverse fissures 37.Into what chamber of the heart do the pulmonary veins empty? Left atrium (Remember-the pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood.) 38.What is the only valve in the heart that has two cusps? Mitral (bicuspid) valve 39.What vein travels with the right coronary artery? Small cardiac vein 40.At what vertebral level does the trachea bifurcate? T4-T5 (It is known as the carina.) 41.What attaches the cusps of the valves to the papillary muscles in the heart? Chordae tendineae 42.Around what thoracic structure does the right recurrent laryngeal nerve loop before ascending into the larynx? Right subclavian artery 43.At what vertebral level does the esophagus originate? C6 44.At what level does the abdominal aorta bifurcate into the common iliac arteries? L4-L5 45.The obturator artery is a branch of what major artery? Internal iliac artery 46.What is the first branch off the abdominal artery? Inferior phrenic artery 47.Into what vessel does the right gonadal vein drain? The inferior vena cava 48.Into what vessel does the left gonadal vein drain? The left renal vein 49.At what vertebral level does the common carotid artery bifurcate? C4 50.At what vertebral level is the hyoid bone found? C3 51.The ophthalmic artery is a branch of what vessel? Internal carotid artery 52.What forms the portal vein? The union of the superior mesenteric and the splenic veins 53.Where does the inferior mesenteric vein drain? The splenic vein 54.What vein is formed by the union of the right and left brachiocephalic veins? Superior vena cava 55.What is the only muscle in the larynx that is not inner- vated by the recurrent laryn- geal nerve? Cricothyroid (It’s innervated by the external laryngeal nerve.) 56.The folds of the mucosa of the stomach are known as what? Rugae 57.What is the artery of the embryonic foregut? Celiac artery 58.What comprises the portal triad? 1. Common bile duct 2. Hepatic artery 3. Portal vein 59.What structures differentiate the anatomic right and left lobes of the liver? Ligamentum teres and ligamentum venosum 60.What structure “runs” along the transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae? Ureters 61.To enter into the lesser peri-toneal sac, you must traverse through what foramen? Foramen of Winslow 62.What is another name for the rectouterine pouch? Pouch of Douglas 63.What bones comprise the acetabulum? Pubis, ilium, and ischium 64.What two ligaments of the uterus are remnants of the gubernaculum? Bound and ovarian ligaments 65.What muscles comprise the deep perineal space (the urogenital diaphragm)? Deep transverse perineal and sphincter urethrae 66.What three ligaments com- prise the broad ligament of the uterus? 1. Mesosalpinx 2. Mesovarium 3. Mesometrium 67.What structure traverses the diaphragm at the level of T8? IVC 68.What are the components of the pudendal canal? Pudendal nerve and internal pudendal artery and vein 69.What range of movements can be performed at the metacarpal/phalangealjoint? Flexion/extension, ABduction, and ADduction 70.A fracture of the surgical neck of the humerus will most likely damage what nerve? Axillary nerve 71.What compartment of the lower extremity allows flexion of the hip and extension of the knee? Anterior compartment of the thigh 72.What nerve roots comprise the lumbosacral plexus? L4 to S4 73.What is the function of gray rami communicans? They are postganglionic sympathetic axons. 74.What compartment of the lower extremities allows ADduction of the thigh and flexion of the hip? Medial compartment of the thigh 75.What are the only splanchnics in the body that carry preganglionic parasympathetic fibers? Pelvic splanchnics (P begins preganglionic, parasympathetic, and pelvic.) 76.What postganglionic parasympathetic ganglion is associated with CN III? Ciliary ganglion 77.What is the name of the ganglion that houses the cell bodies for the postganglionic sympathetic fibers to the head and neck? Superior cervical ganglion 78.What two muscles do you test to see if CN XI is intact? Trapezius and sternocleidoinastoid 79.What component of the corneal reflex is lost in a CN VII deficit? Motor aspect 80.Toward what side would the uvula point if the right CN X were damaged? The left (points to the unaffected side) 81.What is the name of the urinary bladder where the ureters enter and the urethra exits? Urinary trigone 82.What is the only organ in the body supplied by preganglionic sympathetic fibers? Adrenal rnedulla 83.The pudendal canal is formed by splitting the fascia of what muscle? Obturator internus 84.What is the name of the duct formed by the union of the vas deferens and the duct of the seminal vesicle? Ejaculatory duct 85.What are the fingerlike projections at the end of the fallopian (uterine) tubes? Fimbriae 86.Where is the seminal vesicle located? On the posterior aspect of the urinary bladder 87.What vessel can be found atop the scalene anterior? Subclavian vein 88.What muscle divides the anterior from the posterior triangles of the neck? Sternocleidomastoid 89.Where does the parotid (Stenson’s) duct enter the oral cavity? Opposite the second upper molar tooth 90.What is the function of the arachnoid granulations? Resorb CSF into the blood 91.What muscle is the most superiorly situated muscle in the orbit? Levator palpebrae superioris 92.What is the triad of Horner’s syndrome? Miosis, ptosis, and anhydrosis 93.What bone of the middle ear articulates with the tympanic membrane? Malleus 94.What chamber of the eye is located between the iris and the lens? Posterior chamber 95.What bone houses the ear? Temporal bone 96.What is the only muscle of the tongue not innervated by the hypoglossal nerve? Palatoglossus 97.Where does the nasolacrimal duct terminate? Inferior meatus of the nasal cavity 98.What gland is found in the muscular triangle of the neck? Thyroid gland 99.What two regions of the vertebral column are con- sidered primary curvatures? Thoracic and sacral 100.What are the only muscles in the body innervated by dorsal rami? Intrinsic (deep) muscles of the back (All other muscles are innervated by ventral rami.) 101.What is the portion of the second cervical vertebra that projects superiorly to act as the body for C1? Odontoid (dens) process 102.What is the actual space that contains CSF? Subarachnoid space 103.What is the protective covering that is adherent to the spinal cord and CNS tissue? Pia mater 104.What is the name of the spinal cord that passes within the subarachnoid space that forms the spinal nerves that exit the lumbar and sacral foramina? Cauda equina 105.What are the names ligaments that would pierced, in order, by a lumbar puncture? 1. Supraspinous ligament 2. Interspinous ligament 3. Ligamentum flavum 106.What is the inferiormost segment of the sternum? Xiphoid process 107.True or false-the pectoralis major medially rotates the arm? True; it also ADducts and flexes the arm. 108.What are the borders of the axillary artery? Lateral border of the first rib to the inferior border of the teres major 109.What vessels arise from the three segments of the axillary artery? 1. Superior thoracic artery 2. Lateral thoracic artery and thoracoacromial trunk 3. Subscapular artery, and the anterior and posterior humeral circumflex One artery from the first segment, two arteries from the second segment, and three arteries from the 110.What muscle is the main lateral rotator of the arm? Infraspinatus muscle 111.What innervates the flexor compartment of the arm? Musculocutaneus nerve 112.What nerve is most commonly affected when there is a fracture of the midshaft of the humerus? Radial nerve C deer “(Int4.1 a . 113.What vein courses along the medial aspect of the forearm? Basilic vein 114.What is the blood vessel in the upper extremity most commonly palpated while taking a pulse? Radial artery 115.What is the nerve supply to the forearm? Median nerve (except for the flexor carpi ulnaris and flexor digiti profundus muscles of the pinkie and ring finger, which are supplied by the ulnar) 116.What are the “LOAF” muscles of the hand? LOAF stands for the muscles of the hand innervated by the median nerve: Lumbricales, Opponens pollicis, Abductor pollicis brevis, and Flexor pollicis brevis; All other intrinsic muscles in the hand are innervated by the ulnar nerve 117.What muscles in the hand ADduct the fingers? The palmer interosseus adducts, whereas the dorsal interosseus abducts (PAD and DAB) 118.In order to pronate the hand, what bones need to cross? Radius crosses over the ulna 119.At what point does the femoral artery become the popliteal artery? When it traverses the adductor hiatus 120.Loss of ABduction of the lower limbs results in Trendelenburg gait; what nerve is compromised to cause this? Superior gluteal nerve 121.What two arteries join together to form the super- ficial and deep palmar arches of the hand? Uhiar and radial arteries (ulnar is the main supplier) 122.What muscle “fills” the greater sciatic foramen? Piriformis 123.What nerve is affected when a patient has difficulty rising from a sitting position? Inferior gluteal nerve (nerve to the gluteus maximus) 124.Why are IM injections in the gluteal mass given in the upper outer quadrant? To avoid damage to the sciatic nerve 125.What two nerves innervate the adductor magnus? Obturator and tibial nerves 126.What two nerves innervate the biceps femoris? Common peroneal and tibial nerves 127.Going from lateral to medial, what structures pass deep to the inguinal ligament? NAVEL-Nerve, Arterv, Vein, Empty space, and Lacunar ligament or Lymphatics 128.What artery turns into the dorsalis pedis when it crosses the extensor retinaculum? Anterior tibial artery 129.What is the nerve for the anterior compartment of the leg? Deep peroneal nerve 130.What is the artery for the posterior compartment of the leg? Posterior tibial arterv 131.Where is the “magical plane” that divides the superior from the inferior media- stinum? A horizontal line from T4-T5 to the sternal angle of Louis 132.What vein drains the lower third of the thoracic wall? Hemiazygous vein 133.If you were to do a pleural tap, what region of the intercostal space would your needle enter? The superior border of the rib Why? Because the neurovascular bundle is located on the inner surface of the inferior border of the rib 134.What muscles of the foot are supplied by the medial plantar nerve (Hint: Think about the median nerve distribution in the hand.)? LAFF-Lumbricalis (1st), Abductor hallucis, Flexor 3X hallucis brevis, Flexor digitorum brevis. All other intrinsic muscles in the foot are supplied by the lateral plantar nerve. 135.What remnant of the middle lobe of the lung is found on the left side? The lingula 136.The ventral rami of what cervical vertebrae innervate diaphragm? C3, C4, and C5 keep the diaphragm alive! 137.At the level of rib 6, the internal thoracic artery divides into what two arteries? Musculophrenic and superior epigastric arteries 138.What portion of the peri- cardium is adherent to the tunica adventitia of the great vessels? Fibrous pericardium 139.The left anterior descending artery of the heart travels with what vein? Great cardiac vein 140.What is the largest muscle in the body? Gluteus maximus 141.The middle cardiac vein of the heart travels with what artery? Posterior intraventricular artery 142.What is the ratio of the myocardial thickness of the atria: right ventricle: left ventricle? 1:03:09 143.What chamber of the heart comprises the: Sternal surface? Right ventricle Diaphragmatic surface? Right ventricle and left ventricle Left margin? Left ventricle and left atrium Right margin? Right atria Base? Left atria 144.What structure does the left recurrent laryngeal nerve loop around before it ascends into the larynx? The arch of the aorta 145.At what point does the axillary artery become the brachial artery? When it crosses the teres major 146.What is the anatomic posi- tioning of the right and left gastric nerve plexus of the esophagus as they pass through the diaphragm? LARP- 147.Left goes Anterior and Right goes Posterior (because of the rotation of the gut -Remember your embryology!) 148.What muscles comprise the rotator cuff? SITS-Subscapularis, Infraspinatus, Teres minor, & Supraspinatus 149.What are the five branches off the median cord of the brachial plexus? Four Ms and a U- 1. Median 2. Medial antebrachial 3. Medial pectoral 4. Medial brachial cutaneus 3X 5. Ulnar 150.What are the five branches off the posterior cord of the brachial plexus? STARS- 1. Upper Subscapularis 2. Thoracodorsal 3. Axillary ; & 4. Radial 5. Lower Subscapularis 151.What are the three branches off the lateral cord of the brachial plexus? 1. Lateral pectoral 2. Lateral head of the median 3. Musculocutaneus 152.What are the four branches off the brachial plexus that arise prior to the first rib? 1. Dorsal scapular 2. Suprascapular 3. Long thoracic 4. Nerve to subclavius 153.What nerve innervates the extensor compartment of the arm? Radial nerve (It also innervates the extensor compartment of the forearm.) 154.What muscles insert in/on the intertubercular groove of the humerus? Lady between two Majors- latissimus dorsi, pectoralis major, and teres major 155.What artery is found in the lateral compartment of the leg? None. The peroneal artery is in the posterior compartment of the leg. 156.What muscle laterally rotates the femur to “unlock” the knee? Popliteus 157.What bursa is inflamed in “clergyman’s knee”? Infrapatellar bursa 158.Where does the great saphenous vein terminate? In the femoral vein 159.What comprises the “unhappy triad” of the knee? 1. Medial collateral ligament 2. Medial meniscus 3. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) The severity of injury to these ligaments is ranked from bad to worst in relation to how many of them are damaged, and they are usually damaged in the order listed. 160.What are the two branches off the external iliac artery before it becomes the femoral artery? Circumflex iliac and inferior epigastric arteries 161.From which three sources does the adrenal gland get its blood supply? 1. Superior suprarenal artery (off inferior phrenic artery) 2. Directly off the abdominal aorta as the middle suprarenal artery 3. Inferior suprarenal artery off the renal artery 162.What are the three branches off the celiac artery? 1. Common hepatic artery 2. Splenic artery 3. Left gastric artery 163.What are the three main branches off the inferior mesenteric artery? 1. Left colic artery 2. Superior rectal artery 3. Sigmoid artery 164.The inferior thyroid artery is a branch of what vessel? Thyrocervical trunk 165.What is the area of the carotid artery that is an 02 receptor? Carotid body (The carotid sinus is a pressure receptor.) 166.What arteries join together forming the basilar artery? Left and right vertebral arteries 167.What is the major difference between the veins in the face and the veins in the rest of the body? No valves and no smooth muscle in the walls of the veins in the face 168.At what point does the sig- moid sinus become the internal jugular vein? When it crosses the jugular foramina 169.What connects the lateral ventricles to the third ventricle? Foramen of Monro 170.What connects the third and the fourth ventricles together? Cerebral aqueduct 171.How does cerebrospinal fluid leave the fourth ventricle? Through the foramina of Magendie (medial) and Luschka (lateral) M in Magendie = medial; L in Luschka = lateral. 172.What is the lymphatic drainage of the gonads? Lumbar trunk nodes (Lymphatic drainage follows blood supply.) 173.What is the lymphatic drainage of the pelvic organs? Internal iliac nodes 174.What are the five clinical signs of portal hypertension? 1. Caput medusae 2. Hemorrhoids 3. Retroperitoneal varices 4. Splenomegaly 5. Esophageal varices 175.What is the region of the body where all tonsillar tissue can be found? Waldeyer’s ring 176.What are the three functions of the nasal cavity? It warms, moistens, and filters inspired air. 177.What region of the pharynx does the eustachian tube enter? Nasopharynx 178.In which segment of the duodenum is the ampulla of Vater located? Second segment 179.The duodenal/jejunal flexure is suspended from the posterior abdominal wall by what? Ligament of Treitz 180.What are the three anatomic characteristics that differen- tiate the large bowel from the small bowel and the rectum? 1. Tinea coli 2. Haustra 3. Epiploic appendages 181.What is the artery of the embryonic midgut? Superior mesenteric artery 182.What two ligaments together comprise the lesser omentum? Gastrohepatic and hepatoduodenal 183.The quadrate and the caudate lobes are part of what side of the anatomic liver? The right 184.What is the artery of the embryonic hindgut? Inferior mesenteric artery 185.The hepatic duct and the cystic duct come together to form what? Common bile duct 186.What muscle forms the “bed” for the kidney? Quadratus lumborum 187.What ligament of the uterus houses the ovarian vessels? Suspensory ligament of the ovary 188.What three muscles comprise the pes anserinus? 1. Sartorius 2. Gracilis 3. Semitendinous 189.What are the 10 retro- peritoneal organs? 1. Duodenum 2. Ascending Colon 3. Ureters 4. Pancreas 5. Suprarenals 6. Descending colon 7. Aorta 8. Kidneys 9. Rectum 10. Inferior vena cava 190.What is the only cranial nerve with the ability to regenerate? CN I 191.What duct transmits secretions from the sub- mandibular gland to the oral cavity? Wharton’s duct 192.What are the boundaries of the posterior triangle of the neck? The stern ocleidomastoid, the trapezius, and the clavicle 193.What are the contents of the adductor canal? Femoral artery and vein and saphenous nerve 194.What are the contents of the submandibular triangle of the neck? Submandibular gland, facial artery and vein, nerve to the mylohyoid 195.What carpal bones articulate with the radius? Scaphoid and lunate 196.What are the borders of the anterior triangle of the neck? Sternocleidomastoid, mandible, and midline of the neck 197.What are the six cranial nerves that innervate structures in the orbit? 1. CN II-vision 2. CN Vl-sensory (ophthalmic division) 3. CN VII-lacrimal gland LR6 (S04)3 (to remember nerves below): 4. CN VI-lateral rectus 5. CN IV-superior oblique 6. CN III-all other muscles of the eye 198.What muscle keeps the stapes taut against the oval window? Stapedius muscle 199.What area of the posterior aspect of the eye has no photo receptors? The optic disk is the blind spot. 200.What muscles are found in the superficial perineal pouch? Superficial transverse perineal, ischiocavernous, and bulbocavernous muscles 201.What gland is found in the deep perineal pouch in men? Bulbourethral gland; no gland is found in this pouch in women. 202.What pouch of the peri- neum houses the superficial fascia and the inferior fascia? The deep perineal pouch (same as the urogenital diaphragm) 203.What gland is found in the superficial perineal pouch in men and women? None in men, the greater vestibular gland in women 204.What are the five structures that traverse the spermatic cord? 1. Pampiniform plexus of veins 2. Vas deferens 3. Testicular artery 4. Nerves 5. Lymphatics 205.What are the borders of Hesselbach’s triangle? Rectus abdominis medially, Inferior epigastric vessels laterally, Inguinal ligament as the base 206.Which type of hernia goes through both the deep inguinal and superficial inguinal ring? Indirect; a direct hernia goes directly through Hesselbach’s triangle 207.What structure(s) traverse the diaphragm at the level of T10? Esophagus and gastric plexus of nerves 208.What structure(s) traverse the diaphragm at the level of T12? Aorta, azygous vein, and thoracic duct Remember: One at Ts, two at Tlo,three at T,Z. 209.What compartment of the lower extremity allows flexion of the toe, inversion of the foot, and plantar flexion of the foot? Posterior compartment of the leg 210.How are the arm and the forearm positioned in “waiter’s tip hand”? The arm is medially rotated, and the forearm is extended and pronated. 211.What is the function of white rami communicans? They are preganglionic sympathetic axons. They are white because they are myelinated. 212.What compartment of the lower extremity allows extension of the hip and flexion of the knee? Posterior compartment of the thigh 213.What compartment of the lower extremity allows dorsiflexion, extension of the toes, and inversion of the foot? Anterior compartment of the leg 214.What cervical nerves comprise the cervical plexus? C1 to C4 215.What compartment of the lower extremity allows eversion and plantar flexion of the foot? Lateral compartment of the leg 216.If the left hypoglossal nerve was damaged, which way would the tongue point? To the left (The uvula points to affected side.) 217.In women, what is the name of the pouch between the bladder and the uterus called? Uterovesical pouch 218.What component of the pelvic diaphragm forms the rectal sling (muscle of continence)? Puborectalis 219.What is the name of the comma-shaped structure that is attached to the posterior aspect of the testes? Epididymis 220.What is the structure of the uterus that projects above the opening of the uterine tubes? Fundus 221.What is the region of the fallopian tube where fertilization most commonly occurs? Ampulla 222.How can you access the lowermost point in the peritoneal cavity in women? Via the posterior fornix of the vagina 223.Which type of hemorrhoids are painful? External hemorrhoids; internal hemorrhoids lack pain fibers. 224.What are the five terminal branches of the facial nerve? 1. Temporal 2. Zygomatic 3. Buccal 4. Mandibular 5. Cervical (Two Zebras Bit My Clavicle.) 225.What two vessels come together to form the external jugular vein? 1. Posterior auricular vein 2. Posterior division of the retromandibular vein 226.What is the position of the eyeball if CN VI is lost? Adducted 227.The thyroid gland receives blood from what two different sources? 1. Inferior thyroid off the thyrocervical trunk 2. Superior thyroid artery off the external carotid artery, and sometimes off the arch of the aorta as the thyroid ima artery 228.What postganglionic para-sympathetic ganglia is associated with: CN VII? COPS Submandibular ganglion 229.What postganglionic para-sympathetic ganglia is associated with: CN IX? Pterygopalatine and otic ganglion 230.What postganglionic para-sympathetic ganglia is associated with: CN X? Terminal ganglion 231.What type of fibers are carried in the thoracic and lumbar splanchnics? Preganglionic sympathetic fibers 232.How are preganglionic parasympathetic fibers carried to the embryonic hindgut? Via pelvic splanchnics 233.What is the only portion of CN V that carries motor fibers? Mandibular division (V3) 234.What portion of CN V is affected if the corneal reflex is lost? Ophthalmic division (VI) 235.What cranial nerve is affected if you have a laterally deviated eye that is dilated with a ptosed eyelid? CN III 236.Which cranial nerves are found in the midline of the brain stem? CN I, 11, 111, VI, and XII ARN Add 1 + 1 = 2, 1 + 2 = VXF 3,1+2+3=6,1+2+ 3+6=12 237.What are the four muscles of mastication? 1. Masseter 2. Temporalis 3. Medial pterygoid 4. Lateral pterygoid
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